In the Northern part of Ghana: The Gonja payment consists of minimal amount of 13 shillings and 12 kola; it is small by any standard, though it is supplemented by courting and greeting gifts to the future bride and to her parents… Among the Lowiili, the transactions flow in the same direction; there is a small payment of 350 cowries which is said to be all that is needed to “legalize” the union. JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM 2017 December 2020 1950. 2011 Bride-wealth in traditional African societies had some positive aspects but mostly negative consequences, as it was the foundation of patriarchy. The dowry, a practice in medieval and Renaissance Europe and today largely practiced in India, were inherited goods by the bride from her family which she brought to her new home with the groom with the intention to support her new family with it (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2015). Shepherds 1978. The Akans say “Wɔnsei ammamerɛ” (Traditions must not be destroyed) and as a reflection of such thoughts, it has led to the fusion of the old and new; the traditional and the modern. The marriage gift greased this relationship even more. The purpose of giving "bride wealth" is to honor the wife giver "Mayu" and to create a strong relationship. February 2020 The legitimisation of the marriage is the quintessence of the cultural implications as it is from it that all other implications can be inferred from. The “bride wealth” system is extremely important for kinship system in Kachin society and has been used for centuries. JOHN THE BAPTIST 1964. 2000 The bride-wealth is mainly in the form of livestock, beer, grain and honey. Prophet Moses Qualities Of God 1. CHRISTIAN APPROACHES TO WORK Thus marriage serves as the platform for which lineages, clans and ethnicities can be continued. Schneider H. A model of African indigenous economy and society. Firstly, the giving and acceptance of the marriage gift implied that a smooth relation existed between the family of the bride and that of the groom. 2007 African Moral And Cultural Values 1992. 12. London, New York: Cambridge University Press. The amount to be paid is fixed in some community while in others it isn’t and may vary sparingly … 2009 However, the money was to be found in the pockets of the elites as old as they were; and army men who had served in the second World War fighting unknown enemies and obeying words they did not understand. Old Testament Prophesies About The Messiah Africa (Lond). The importance of bride wealth in traditional African communities. JESUS TEACHINGS Life-of-jesus Goody J, Tambiah SJ. It is symbolic” 6(p48). 2.2. Bride wealth acts as an outward seal of the marriage contract/cements the marriage. Easter The Bible May 2020 Henceforth in this paper, I will use the term “marriage gift” to refer to this custom due to its reciprocal nature and its symbolic meaning to the people which is in no way similar to the buying and selling of items on a market. CRE PAPER 2 QUESTIONS The African Energy Chamber forecasts that 2021 generation is likely to range between 870-900 TWh if demand picks up aggressively throughout the year. In Kachin society, bride wealth is required to be given by wife taker “Dama” to wife giver “Mayu.” Kachin ancestors thought that … In South Africa, the law provides for respecting the marriage practices of traditional marriages, whereby a person might be married as young as 12 for females and 14 for males enhancing the practice (Nawal, 2006). Selected Aspects In African Religious Heritage: African Concept Of God The exact details of the “bride wealth” system vary by time and place. Nunkunya G. Tradition and change in Ghana. The cultural implications of the marriage gift have been grossly misrepresented as a result ethnographic bias. The marriage rites are followed strictly and are very traditional. The monetisation of African economies thus, led to a shift from the extended family system to a nuclear one. The monetisation, also as a result of the formation of new national identities, saw the rise of new systems for recognising and legitimising marriages. In traditional African communities, bride wealth is given as a sign of commitment by the groom. FALSE PROPHETS Among the Gonja the transactions are returnable 7–9. They have no binding force between husband and wife. 2002 It is a practice which has long been accepted by clan heads, chiefs and traditional rulers alike. Human Sexuality It can also be termed as the bride price. Assimeng J. March 2020 Marriage is not seen as a union between a man and a woman but also between families, societies and ethnicities who could be considered as stakeholders in this union. This was seen to be gross disrespect. It also served as a token of gratitude by the groom’s family as the care of the woman had be entrusted to them 1. “There are frequently…some in the [groom’s] direction” 6(p47) thus it is reciprocal although the gift from the bride’s family “may be materially smaller than those of the man” 1(p140). The researcher wants to explore more about the practice of bridewealth. It is thus important that the union between a man and a woman is recognised by society as a whole. Healing 2013. December 2019 The Galilean Ministry “Normative”,’Recollected'and “Actual”Marriage Payments among the Lowiili of Northern Ghana, 1951–1966. FORM 2 Comp Stud Soc Hist. It is an African custom. The bride wealth however is seen as the custom of presenting a gift to the brides people 1. Thus, it was regarded as a crime for a man to live with a woman in British Kenya, whose family had not received the marriage gift from him 5. Marriage, which used to be a communal affair now only needed the consent of the man and woman involved. 1997 The acceptance of the gifts bestowed upon the bride’s family by the groom shows that an agreement has been reached by not only the bride’s family but by society as whole in recognising the two partners as a man and wife with reciprocal rights and obligations. These two prestations are strikingly different yet similar in the sense that the former was given strictly to the family of the bride to symbolize the union whereas the latter was wealth acquired by the bride from her family to ensure the smooth running of her new home. 5. 10. The creation of new societies and urban centres also as a result of this new economies introduced new family systems that has shrunk to that of the nuclear. Their time as a dating couple comes to an end and the moment that will bring their love together forever slowly draws closer than ever before. 2019 It is the money usually given to the bride's family by the man who intends to marry the lady. The Uses of the Cow in Africa The cow has always been very important to Africans. Shadle BL. Tweet Share. In South Africa, as a result of the brutal and inhumane apartheid laws, husbands seeking greener pastures were separated from their wives for as long as a year getting a chance to meet for about only a week in that year. November 2020 July 2019 African weddings often consist of modern Islamic/Christian ceremonies whilst intertwining traditional African beliefs and practices. Or the payment is an exchange for the bride’s family’s loss of her labour and fertility within her kin group. This is a practise which stemmed from a relatively recent past. Un Press Accra. October 2019 Selected Old Testament Prophets And Their Teachings in Online Special. CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES IN EAST AFRICA C.R.E REVISION KIT This was of disadvantage to young men especially who had to marry but the traditional subsistence activities did not fetch in much for them. The type and amount of wealth to be paid varies from one community to another. "Bridewealth and Dowry in Africa and Eurasia." Bridewealth and Dowry. traditional communities. It is a very common cultural practice in Africa. The symbolic value is essential for coming to terms with its usefulness. Yet, the indigenous religious beliefs and cultural values have served not only as the mediation of expressions for both indigenous Christians and Muslims in this area; they have, also, shaped, to a great extent, the forms of Christianity and Islam that developed as well as the relationships between members of the diverse religious groups. Passover LEADERSHIP IN ISRAEL: DAVID AND SOLOMON The certificates issued by traditional societies was the acceptance of the marriage gift by the family of the bride. November 2018, FOCUS MATHEMATICS TUTORIALS AND EXAMS FREE, KCSE PHYSICS NOTES, AUDIOVISUALS AND MORE, KCSE AGRICULTURE NOTES, SYLLABUS, QUESTIONS, ANSWERS, SCHEMES OF WORK AND OTHERS, IRE NOTES, AUDIOVISUAL, QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, FOCUS A365 SERIES K.C.P.E EXAMINATIONS FOR PRIMARY, Standard 8 (std) English Topical Questions, Regulations for the TIVET Craft and Diploma Business Examinations, KNEC KCSE PAST PAPERS, MARKING SCHEMES, QUESTIONS & ANSWERS, ENGLISH POETRY QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS FOR K.C.S.E CANDIDATES, kcse computer studies paper 2 AND 3 Questions & Answers, KCSE HOME SCIENCE DIRECT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, KCSE Biology Topical Questions and Answers, ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (IRE) QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, KCSE History Topical Questions and Answers, Standard 4-8 Mathematics Topical Questions from Mocks and KCPE. Why Bride price is important in marriages. The African marriage rites are very important to the African peoples. FORM 4 Answers. The integration of African indigenous ... depiction of western cultural and intellectual arrogance. 2001 Its symbolic value will be discussed below. KCSE 2012 Mahapatra, Lisa, and Sophie Song. Amongst the Ashantis, this right was to ensure sexual satisfaction amongst both partners with the intended result of an offspring 11. This has had an impact on family systems and has resulted in the challenge of hierarchical positions which the elders of the kinsgroup enjoyed. A regeneration of past traditions is restoring their positions however as churches demand the consent of extended families before they recognise marriages. It was thus a threat to social order when the permission of authorities in one’s social group was not sought. Importance of Bride Price, Why People Should Pay It. BRIDEWEALTH: Cultural Implications and Impact of the Monetisation of African Economies in Marriage Prestation Systems. The Kikuyu of Kenya, for example, believed that when they died they would be rewarded in heaven with wealth in the form of cattle, sheep, goats and their wives. Pertaining to the marriage gift, it converted many existing prestations into money transactions 4. Also, by legitimising the marriage, formal authority over the bride by her father shifted to the bridegroom and it ensured a safe position for the man as husband 6. Spread Of Christianity In addition, payments amounting to some 3 cows, 1 goat and 20, 000 cowrie shells should be made during the lifetime of the marriage, the last of these at the time the bride joins her husband. In South African society, the custom of bridewealth [in Zulu: ilobolo] is widely upheld, although its current practice may constrain marriage in African society. Above, the importance of the marriage gift in relation to marriage has been emphasised. The symbolic value is essenti… Traditionally speaking, the payment of bride price in Africa is a practice that is as old as time itself. The marriage gift must however be differentiated from the dowry. Form 3 “The giving of the [marriage gift] is not regarded as an economic or at least not as a business transaction. The list differs from tribe to tribe in Ghana. The payment of bride price is a very common thing in many places in Africa and certain parts of Asia. 1971. (iii) Ghost marriage or women to women marriages are practiced in some African communities which is forbidden in Christian teaching on marriage. i) It was a way of thanking the brides family for taking good care of her. Once the gift was given and accepted, it meant a formal betrothal, elevating the status of the man to the position of husband and the woman to the prestigious position of a wife 1,4–6. Prophet Nehemiah Bride wealth acts as an outward seal of the marriage contract/cements the marriage. “Social fatherhood is usually determined by marriage” 6(p11). If they are not forthcoming at the right time, the bride’s father (or his kin) will try to persuade her to return home until the husband meets his obligations. Leone Ouedraogo, Burkina Faso: The bride price is commonly paid in Burkinabe culture and is largely a symbolic act. In relegating these practices, the authority and power of elders in kingroups were also undermined. The gifts exchanged may be of many items or materials and sometimes a direct exchange of sisters as amongst the Tiv of Nigeria. 2008 August 2020 Follow us now to receive the latest updates @schoolatika, All Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. CREATION AND THE FALL OF MAN Children are cherished in many African societies as through them, the lineage is continued and the memories of those gone before into the hereafter are still held in this life. Insofar as African traditional religion can be defined by specific “religious” actions, the cult of the ancestors is its most common and essential activity. Lessons Christians Learn Marriage is the beginning of new life and when two people become one.In African Traditional Religion, marriage is a cherished fecundity and is intended for procreation. These behaviours relegated the traditional practices. It is especially tenacious where cattle have a relational value. ii) Form of compensation to the bride?s parents for her absence. Initiation was and is still important today and in the traditional African communities in boys from the passage from childhood to adulthood.The shedding of blood onto the ground binds the initiates with the God and the ancestors. Marriage is so pivotal in African societies and the marriage gift lies at its core that essentially, it can be said that marriage in many African societies is the rendering of the marriage gift to the family of the bride and the rendering of the marriage gift is marriage. 3. iv) It showed grooms ability to take care of the wife and the family. The payment of bride-wealth by the family of the man is an essential part of a traditional African marriage. Morris H. Review of Developments in African Marriage Law Since 1950. 2010 September 21, 2014 . Church Unity THE GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT Its main function is to legalise the union between a man and a woman and to elevate their positions to that of a husband and wife so their children might be accorded social roles. Amos Marriage is so pivotal in African societies and the marriage gift lies at its core that essentially, it can be said that marriage in many African societies is the rendering of the marriage gift to the family of the bride and the rendering of the marriage gift is marriage. Marriage And Family Bride price, on the other hand, refers to the payments that a prospective groom and his family make to a prospective bride and her family. Mbiti J. African philosophy and religion. “The giving of the [marriage gift] is not regarded as an economic or at least not as a business transaction. Amongst certain societies like the patrilineal Ewes of Ghana and Togo for example, it is given to the family of the bride to ‘compensate’ for the disruption in the structure of their kinship lineage. In traditional African communities, bride wealth is given as a sign of commitment by the groom. Christian Approaches To Law 8. Ities Loyalty To God: Elijah This resulted in many adulterous practices and led to a widespread of sexually transmitted diseases. Giving bride wealth is the evidence of the groomâs ability to take care of a wife/family. However, the monetisation of African economies has diminished its symbolic value reducing women to one of the materialistic objects money buys. It is a form of compensation to the brideâs parents/family for the loss of the girlâs services. The gift was given and accepted after all necessary enquiries had been made by both families to ensure both partners were suitable. The given rules in most African societies stipulate that a form of agreement be reached between both families and this is where the issue of the bride wealth comes in. Amongst the Gusii in south-western Kenya, and this is also characterised by most African societies, it was a crime for a man and a woman to live together as a couple in cases where the bride wealth had not been paid 5. The continuation of the kinship system is essential to African societies and she or he “who does not participate in it is a curse to the community” (Mbiti, 1969: 133) as it may be regarded as a deliberate attempt to discontinue the lineage system upon which the names and memories of the ancestors depend. Prophet Isaiah Culture is not static thus its symbolic meaning will only be represented in new forms. by Mercy Nikenya. 1999. Children This, side-lined the role the elders played in the marriage process and diminished the marriage gift. the African context of a bride price being paid is substantially di⁄erent and the dynamics that apply in many parts of Asia cannot be extrapolated to the African continent. One of the most essential items normally required in most traditional marriages in Africa, is the Dowry. Bride price is defined as the price that is paid either in kind or cash by a man to the family of the woman he wants to marry. This was the most important evidence symbolising the union 1. Marriage and Kinship of the Modern African Society As the bride walks down the aisle, the hopeful and excited groom waits. Bridewealth, also called bride-price or marriage payment, payment made by a groom or his kin to the kin of the bride in order to ratify a marriage. Death And Resurrection Sinai Covenant: Moses It is a cultural phenomenon not only in Africa but also outside. There is a glorious reincarnation of traditional practices as the ideal person in society is one who does not deviate from the norms of tradition. Am Ethnol. Jesus Death traditional religion; bride wealth; groom bride : African marriage. 1969. That is to say, it is that which constitutes the “sole jural instruments for the transfer of marriage rights” 4(p246). KENYA TODAY The bride price list is an integral part of the traditional marriage ceremony, commonly referred to as engagement ceremony in Ghana. I had a chat with one of my Aunties to find out exactly what goes into the bride price for our family (GA by the way) and according to her this was the list presented to my cousin who was getting married then to a Fante man. LAST SUPPER 1998 CUP Archive; 1973. This eventually attached new meanings to the marriage gift practice 12. June 2020 Explain the importance of bride price in traditional African communities. iii) A sign of contract /commitment that a man would marry the girl and live with her. 2015 Data will also be collected among the families of urban middle-class citizens in three rural ethnic groups where bridewealth is still important : the Lau and the Kwaio of the island of Malaita and the Kaoka located close to Honiara on the island of Guadalcanal. It's also done in our churches where vowing is involved and also in the attorney general’s office where couples are too announced married by the law. Elders in kinsgroups have almost lost the positions they once enjoyed. in the perception of African scholars, a traditional healer who is able to cure a particular disease using specific herbs has the knowledge and theory of the plant species and their characteristics. Life-of-jesus 1973. Jesus’ Ministry In Jerusalem In the process of marriage, many gifts are presented to the family of the bride, but the bride wealth is that which Fortes (cited in Ogbu, 1978) terms as the prime prestations. As a result, the significant implications of the marriage gift might resurface. The monetisation of the economies of African societies disrupted many modes of exchange across the continent. In spite of the introduction of Western medicine and health care systems in Africa, many African communities still rely on traditional health care (World Health Organisation [WHO] 2001). 2003 1. Dashboard St. Luke Gospel head wine) and money as the marriage gift 10,11. 2006 Moreover, it was only when the marriage gift had been given could a partner claim redress for the abuse of conjugal rights 4. Children must however be given a place in society and this is done through their being born into a legitimate union. October 2020 Their impact however is only as strong as individuals in these modern states push them. Goody, Jack. This reciprocity ensures a lively and welcoming relationship amongst both kins. Christian Approaches To Law Order And Justice May 2019 The agreement on the gifts to be given to a large extent depends on what the said society values. In traditional African societies, bride-wealth was related to goods and services that a bridegroom and his kinsmen transferred to the family of the bride (Kanogo,2005:105). PROPHET AMOS Many pastoral communities in … K.C.S.E C.R.E 1996 July 2020 The acceptance of the gift is thus the recognition and legitimization of the marriage by society as a whole and may be equated to certificates issued to couples in modern states to signify their legal union. 1999 Nature Of Man 1987. In such cultures, a marriage is not reckoned to have ended until the return of bridewealth has been acknowledged, signifying divorce. CRE PAPER 1 QUESTIONS 0. The Ashanti’s however accept drinks, mostly bottles of gin, (tiri nsa, lit. According to Wikipedia – The free encyclopedia, bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. Technology And Environment April 2020 During the marriage process, many gifts are presented to the bride’s family. 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